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Urinary Tract Conditions and Treatments

What is a cystoscopy?

In this procedure the surgeon guides either a flexible or rigid tube (cystoscope) through the urethra and into the urinary tract to the bladder. The tube contains a lens or optic fibres that send an image to a screen in the operating theatre. Surgical instruments can also be passed through the cystoscope to take tissue samples.


Blood in the urine may be a sign of a range of diseases of the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters (the tubes between the kidneys and bladder); bladder and urethra (the tube that leads from the bladder). In males, the prostate is also part of the urinary tract - the urethra runs through the prostate gland.

Haematuria can indicate a urinary tract infection, kidney stones or the presence of cancer in bladder, kidneys or prostate. It can also be caused by physical trauma such as a heavy blow to the kidneys.

To diagnose the cause, your doctor may use a combination of urine tests and  scans. A cystoscopy (imaging the urinary tract using a tube guided through the urethra) is also often required.